The Occupation of Alcatraz, Part 1


The water tower at Alcatraz. Estrnc/licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license

This episode gives context for the Occupation of Alcatraz, including a brief survey of U.S. government policy toward Native people from the colonial period through the 1950. It also covers some Alcatraz history and an earlier occupation in 1964.

Tracy's Research:

  • Brook, Richard. “What Tribe? Whose Island?” The North American Review, Vol. 255, No. 1 (Spring, 1970). Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25117062
  • DeLuca, Richard. “’We Hold the Rock!’: The Indian Attempt to Reclaim Alcatraz Island.” California Historical Society. California History, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Spring, 1983). Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25158134
  • Eligon, John. “Occupy Alcatraz: Native American Activism in the Modern Era.” Photography by Josué Rivas. New York Times. 10/22/2019. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/10/22/us/occupation-alcatraz.html?fbclid=IwAR3KukB9Uclhynd9X2QGeI46JL0uDJFqT7XKGY0KOPr62QjwNtee6lmFwWM
  • Fortunate Eagle, Adam. “Heart of the Rock: The Indian Invasion of Alcatraz.” University of Oklahoma Press. 2002.
  • Friedler, Delilah. “Activist LaNada War Jack of the Bannock Nation Details Her Time Occupying Alcatraz.” Teen Vogue. 3/21/2019. https://www.teenvogue.com/story/activist-lanada-war-jack-details-occupying-alcatraz
  • Gaede, E. Jethro. “Termination and Relocation Programs.” https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=TE014
  • Golden Gate National Recreation Area. “We Hold the Rock.” National Park Service. Via YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gEmae2PsWJI
  • Heath, G. Louis. “No Rock Is an Island.” The Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 52, No. 7 (Mar., 1971). Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20372932
  • Hendrix, Levanne R. “1953 to 1969: Policy of Termination and Relocation.” Stanford School of Medicine. Ethnogeriatrics. https://geriatrics.stanford.edu/ethnomed/american_indian/learning_activities/learning_1/termination_relocation.html
  • House Concurrent Resolution 108. https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/STATUTE-67/pdf/STATUTE-67-PgB132-2.pdf
  • Indian Country Today. “Voices from Alcatraz Island.” 9/2/2017. https://newsmaven.io/indiancountrytoday/archive/voices-from-alcatraz-island-rhwndtlnwES8WRChgoRsuw/
  • Johnson, Troy et al, editors. “American Indian Activism: Alcatraz to the Longest Walk.” University of Illinois Press. 1997.
  • Johnson, Troy. “The Occupation of Alcatraz Island: Roots of American Indian Activism.” Wicazo Sa Review. Vol. 10, No. 2 (Autumn, 1994). Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1409133
  • Johnson, Troy. “We Hold the Rock.” Alcatraz Island. https://www.nps.gov/alca/learn/historyculture/we-hold-the-rock.htm
  • Koch, Alexander et al. “Earth system impacts of the European arrival and Great Dying in the Americas after 1492.” Quaternary Science Reviews. Vol. 207. 3/1/2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.12.004
  • Langston, Donna Hightower. “American Indian Women's Activism in the 1960s and 1970s.” Hypatia, Vol. 18, No. 2, Indigenous Women in the Americas (Spring, 2003). Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3811016
  • National Congress of American Indians. “Tribal Nations and the United States: An Introduction.” http://www.ncai.org/tribalnations/introduction/Tribal_Nations_and_the_United_States_An_Introduction-web-.pdf
  • National Library of Medicine. “Native Voices.” https://wsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?&v%3Aproject=native-people&sortby=DATE-asc&query=&binning-state=ERA%3D%3D1921+-+1967%3A+Citizenship%2C+Services%2C+and+Sovereignty&
  • National Parks Service. “Alcatraz Island.” https://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/5views/5views1h2.htm
  • Nolte, Carl. “Timothy D. Findley - investigative reporter – dies.” SF Gate. 12/24/2010. https://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/Timothy-D-Findley-investigative-reporter-dies-2452263.php
  • Partnership with Native Americans. “Termination Policy 1953-1968.” http://www.nativepartnership.org/site/PageServer?pagename=PWNA_Native_History_terminationpolicySW
  • Seeker VR. “The Occupation of Alcatraz that Sparked an American Revolution.” Via YouTube. 6/15/2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TBjuhFOeitE
  • Strange, Carolyn and Tina Loo. “Holding the Rock: The ‘Indianization’ of Alcatraz Island, 1969–1999.” The Public Historian , Vol. 23, No. 1 (Winter 2001). Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/tph.2001.23.1.55
  • Winton, Ben. “The occupation of Alcatraz.” The Native Press. http://www.thenativepress.com/life/alcatraz.php
  • Wollan, Malia. “Antigovernment Graffiti Restored, Courtesy of Government.” New York Times. 12/24/2012. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/25/us/alcatraz-american-indian-occupation-graffiti-preserved.html

Topics in this Podcast: San Francisco, California, treaties, Native American rights, occupations, Protests, Occupation of Alcatraz, Native American history, U.S. history