The Occupation of Alcatraz, Part 1

The water tower at Alcatraz. Estrnc/licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license

This episode gives context for the Occupation of Alcatraz, including a brief survey of U.S. government policy toward Native people from the colonial period through the 1950. It also covers some Alcatraz history and an earlier occupation in 1964.

Tracy's Research:

  • Brook, Richard. “What Tribe? Whose Island?” The North American Review, Vol. 255, No. 1 (Spring, 1970). Via JSTOR.
  • DeLuca, Richard. “’We Hold the Rock!’: The Indian Attempt to Reclaim Alcatraz Island.” California Historical Society. California History, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Spring, 1983). Via JSTOR.
  • Eligon, John. “Occupy Alcatraz: Native American Activism in the Modern Era.” Photography by Josué Rivas. New York Times. 10/22/2019.
  • Fortunate Eagle, Adam. “Heart of the Rock: The Indian Invasion of Alcatraz.” University of Oklahoma Press. 2002.
  • Friedler, Delilah. “Activist LaNada War Jack of the Bannock Nation Details Her Time Occupying Alcatraz.” Teen Vogue. 3/21/2019.
  • Gaede, E. Jethro. “Termination and Relocation Programs.”
  • Golden Gate National Recreation Area. “We Hold the Rock.” National Park Service. Via YouTube.
  • Heath, G. Louis. “No Rock Is an Island.” The Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 52, No. 7 (Mar., 1971). Via JSTOR.
  • Hendrix, Levanne R. “1953 to 1969: Policy of Termination and Relocation.” Stanford School of Medicine. Ethnogeriatrics.
  • House Concurrent Resolution 108.
  • Indian Country Today. “Voices from Alcatraz Island.” 9/2/2017.
  • Johnson, Troy et al, editors. “American Indian Activism: Alcatraz to the Longest Walk.” University of Illinois Press. 1997.
  • Johnson, Troy. “The Occupation of Alcatraz Island: Roots of American Indian Activism.” Wicazo Sa Review. Vol. 10, No. 2 (Autumn, 1994). Via JSTOR.
  • Johnson, Troy. “We Hold the Rock.” Alcatraz Island.
  • Koch, Alexander et al. “Earth system impacts of the European arrival and Great Dying in the Americas after 1492.” Quaternary Science Reviews. Vol. 207. 3/1/2019.
  • Langston, Donna Hightower. “American Indian Women's Activism in the 1960s and 1970s.” Hypatia, Vol. 18, No. 2, Indigenous Women in the Americas (Spring, 2003). Via JSTOR.
  • National Congress of American Indians. “Tribal Nations and the United States: An Introduction.”
  • National Library of Medicine. “Native Voices.”
  • National Parks Service. “Alcatraz Island.”
  • Nolte, Carl. “Timothy D. Findley - investigative reporter – dies.” SF Gate. 12/24/2010.
  • Partnership with Native Americans. “Termination Policy 1953-1968.”
  • Seeker VR. “The Occupation of Alcatraz that Sparked an American Revolution.” Via YouTube. 6/15/2017.
  • Strange, Carolyn and Tina Loo. “Holding the Rock: The ‘Indianization’ of Alcatraz Island, 1969–1999.” The Public Historian , Vol. 23, No. 1 (Winter 2001). Via JSTOR.
  • Winton, Ben. “The occupation of Alcatraz.” The Native Press.
  • Wollan, Malia. “Antigovernment Graffiti Restored, Courtesy of Government.” New York Times. 12/24/2012.

Topics in this Podcast: San Francisco, California, treaties, Native American rights, occupations, Protests, Occupation of Alcatraz, Native American history, U.S. history