The Black Sox Scandal


1919 Chicago White Sox Public domain

Some of the Chicago White Sox players confessed to taking a bribe to lose the 1919 World Series on purpose, but they never admitted to actually underplaying. And the collective memory about this whole scandal is very different from how it all played out.

Tracy's Research:

  • "1919 Chicago White Sox." Notable Sports Figures, edited by Dana R. Barnes, Gale, 2004. Gale In Context: U.S. History, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/K2440301001/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=GPS&xid=eabb2cdb. Accessed 25 Sept. 2019.
  • "Black Sox Trial Indictment." Crime and Punishment: Essential Primary Sources, edited by K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, Gale, 2006, pp. 61-63. Gale In Context: U.S. History, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX2588900036/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=GPS&xid=8a8b0a5b. Accessed 25 Sept. 2019.
  • Allardice, Bruce. “’Playing Rotten, It Ain’t That Hard to Do.” Baseball Research Journal. Spring 2016.
  • Bachin, Robin F. “At the Nexus of Labor and Leisure: Baseball, Nativism, and the 1919 Black Sox Scandal.” Journal of Social History, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Summer, 2003). Via JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3790358
  • Boyer, Allen. “’The Great Gatsby’, the Black Sox, High Finance, and American Law.” Michigan Law Review, Vol. 88, No. 2 (Nov., 1989). Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1289082
  • Carney, Gene. "Uncovering the Fix of the 1919 World Series: the role of Hugh Fullerton." Nine, Fall 2004, p. 39+. Gale General OneFile, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A127279569/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=GPS&xid=395ed60a. Accessed 25 Sept. 2019.
  • Eschner, Kat. “The 1919 Black Sox Baseball Scandal Was Just One of Many.” 9/1/2017. Smithsonian. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/1919-black-sox-baseball-scandal-wasnt-first-180964673/#EZXJ4XvSW4VlEFhk.99
  • Goetsch, Douglas. “Baseball’s Loss of Innocence.” The American Scholar, Vol. 80, No. 2 (Spring 2011). Via JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41222374
  • Kelly, Matt. “’On Account of War.’” Baseball Hall of Fame. https://baseballhall.org/discover-more/stories/short-stops/1918-world-war-i-baseball
  • Klein, Frank O. “Catcher Ray Schalk in Huge White Sox Expose.” Collyer’s Eye. 12/13/1919. https://www.dropbox.com/s/wnxok374crcaa0t/Collyers%20Eye-12-13-19%20-%20Schalk%20in%20Huge%20White%20Sox%20Expose.pdf?dl=0
  • Lahamn, Sean. “A Brief History of Baseball.” http://www.seanlahman.com/baseball-archive/brief-history-of-baseball/
  • Lamb, Bill. "An Ever-Changing Story: Exposition and Analysis of Shoeless Joe Jackson's Public Statements on the Black Sox Scandal." The Baseball Research Journal, vol. 48, no. 1, 2019, p. 37+. Gale General OneFile, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A585087171/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=GPS&xid=790caa5a. Accessed 25 Sept. 2019.
  • Lamb, William F. “The Black Sox Scandal.” Society for American Baseball Research. https://sabr.org/research/black-sox-scandal-bill-lamb
  • Lamb, William. "Jury nullification and the not guilty verdicts in the black sox case." The Baseball Research Journal, vol. 44, no. 2, 2015, p. 47+. Gale General OneFile, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A433878476/GPS?u=mlin_n_melpub&sid=GPS&xid=3a0a4e81. Accessed 25 Sept. 2019.
  • Markusen, Bruce. “Scandals and Deception on the Diamond.” From Play Ball! The Rise of Baseball as America’s Pastime. The Great Courses Plus. https://www.thegreatcoursesplus.com/films/title/scandals-and-deception-on-the-diamond
  • National Archives. “Work or Fight 1918.” http://recordsofrights.org/events/127/work-or-fight
  • Neyer, Rob. “Two distinct periods of gambling.” ESPN. 2/7/2014. https://www.espn.com/mlb/columns/story?columnist=neyer_rob&id=1702483
  • Schulman, Henry. “A hundred years after the Black Sox scandal, MLB embraces baseball betting.” San Francisco Chronicle. 3/2/2019. https://www.sfchronicle.com/giants/article/A-hundred-years-after-the-Black-Sox-scandal-MLB-13658409.php
  • Society for American Baseball Research. “Eight Myths Out: The Black Sox Scandal.” https://sabr.org/eight-myths-out
  • Traubel, Horace. “Sunday, April 7, 1889.” From With Walt Whitman in Camden, vol. 4 (1953). Via The Walt Whitman Archive. https://whitmanarchive.org/criticism/disciples/traubel/WWWiC/4/contents.html
  • Voigt, David Quentin. “The Chicago Black Sox and the Myth of Baseball's Single Sin.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society (1908-1984), Vol. 62, No. 3 (Autumn, 1969). Via JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40191488

Topics in this Podcast: Scandals, 20th century, U.S. history, sports history