The Bisbee Deportation

A postcard depicting the Bisbee deportation. Photo by George C. Dix. Public domain

The 1917 Bisbee Deportation has elements of a labor strike, a wartime hysteria, a vigilante mob, and a mass propaganda effort, all rolled into one. It took place in Bisbee, Arizona, southeast of Tucson and close to the U.S. border with Mexico.

Tracy's Research:

  • WBUR. “Bisbee, Arizona, Reconsiders 'The Great Deportation' Of 1917.” 7/12/2017.
  • Sieg, Stina. “Remembering The Bisbee Deportation, 100 Years Later.” KJZZ. 7/12/2017.
  • UFCW Local 324. “The Bisbee Deportation.”
  • Digital Arizona Library. “Bisbee Deportation.”
  • Patience, Wes and Judy Tritz. “Cochise County Clerk's Office - Bisbee Deportation Documents.” Cochise County Clerk of the Superior Court.
  • Bonnand, Sheila et al. “The Bisbee Deportation of 1917: A University of Arizona Web Exhibit.” University of Arizona. 2005.
  • American Mining Congress, Arizona Chapter. Deportations from Bisbee and a Resume of Other Troubles in Arizona. N.p.: n.p., [1917?].
  • Byrkit, James W. "The I. W. W. in Wartime Arizona." Journal of Arizona History. 18.2 (1977): 149-170.
  • McBride, James D. "Gaining a Foothold In the Paradise of Capitalism: The Western Federation of Miners and The Unionization of Bisbee." Journal of Arizona History. 23.3 (1982): 299-316.
  • Soule, George. "The Law of Necessity in Bisbee." Nation 113 (1921): 21-23.
  • Law of Necessity as Applied in the State of Arizona, Bisbee I.W.W. vs. Deportation Case H.E. Wootton
  • Watson, Fred. "Still on Strike: Recollections of a Bisbee Deportee." Journal of Arizona History 18.2 (1977): 171-184.
  • Wilson, Marjorie Haines. "Governor Hunt, the 'Beast' and the Miners." Journal of Arizona History 15.2 (1974): 119-138.
  • "Sixth Annual Report of the Secretary of Labor," Reports of the Department of Labor 1918. Report of the Secretary of Labor and Reports of Bureaus (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1919). pp. 9-17, 23-28. UA Special Collections H9791 B621 U58. Different edition: UA Main, Government Documents L1.1:918.
  • Department of Labor Office of the Secretary Report of the Bisbee Deportations made by the President's Mediation Commission to the President of the United States, November 6, Washington Government Printing Office, 1918.
  • Lindquist, John H. and James Fraser. “A Sociological Interpretation of the Bisbee Deportation.” Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Nov., 1968), pp. 401-422. Via JSTOR.
  • Benton-Cohen, Katherine> “Docile Children and Dangerous Revolutionaries: The Racial Hierarchy of Manliness and the Bisbee Deportation of 1917.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2/3, Gender on the Borderlands (2003), pp. 30-50. Via JSTOR.
  • The Zimmerman Telegram.
  • Parfitt, Steven. “The Justice Department Campaign Against the IWW, 1917-1920.” University of Washington.