Six Impossible Episodes: Evacuating Children

Clockwise from top left: President Gerald R. Ford carries a Vietnamese baby who was part of Operation Babylift; policemen and billeting officers help a group of children evacuated from Bristol during Operation Pied Piper; and Finnish war children en route to Sweden in June 1941. (David Hume Kennerly/courtesy Gerald R. Ford Library. Ministry of Information Photo Division Photographer. All images public domain

All six of today’s topics are mass evacuations of children and youth because of a war or other unrest, and include Kindertransport, Operation Pedro Pan, and Operation Babylift.

Tracy's Research:

  • Allen Greg. “Children Of Cuba Remember Their Flight To America.” NPR. Weekend Edition Saturday. 11/19/2011.
  • Allen, Kevin Minh. “Operation Babylift: An Adoptee’s Perspective.” The Humanist. May-June 2009.
  • ANdersen, Maria. “Pedro Pan: A Children’s Exodus from Cuba.” Smithsonian Insider. 7/11/2017.
  • Attebery, Clint. “From Havana To Montana: Cuban Refugee Children, Operation Pedro Pan, and the Cold WarCatholic Church.” Montana: The Magazine of Western History, Vol. 64, No. 1 (Spring 2014). Via JSTOR.
  • Bradford, Anita Casavantes. “Remembering Pedro Pan: Childhood and Collective Memory Making in Havana and Miami,1960—2000.” Cuban Studies, No. 44 (2016), pp. 283-308. Via JSTOR.
  • Curio, Claudio and Toby Axelrod. “’Invisible’ Children: The Selection and Integration Strategies of Relief Organizations.” Shofar. Vol. 23, No. 1, Special Issue: Kindertransporte 1938/39—Rescue andIntegration (Fall 2004). Via JSTOR.
  • Ford Library Museum. “Operation Babylift.”
  • Hacker, Melissa and Ernest Goodman. “Kindertransport” Encyclopedia Britannica. March 21, 2018.
  • Martin, Rachael. “Remembering The Doomed First Flight Of Operation Babylift.” NPR. Weekend Edition. 4/26/2015.
  • Oldfield, Sybil. “’It Is Usually She’: The Role of British Women in the Rescue and Care of the Kindertransport Kinder.” Shofar, Vol. 23, No. 1, Special Issue: Kindertransporte 1938/39—Rescue andIntegration (Fall 2004). Via JSTOR.
  • Operation Pedro Pan Group. “The Cuban Children’s Exodus.”
  • Prest, David. “Evacuees in World War Two - the True Story: Operation Pied Piper.” BBC. 2/17/2011.
  • Raunio, Ari. “Finnish war children of the Winter War.” Winter War Association.
  • Rodrigues, Jason. “Guernica at 80: Nearly 4,000 child refugees arrive in the UK – archive, 1937.” The Guardian. 5/23/2017.
  • Sahara, Ayako. “Theater of Rescue: Cultural Representations of U.S. Evacuation from Vietnam.” Journal of American & Canadian Studies; 2012, Issue 30, p55.
  • Santavirta, Torsten. “How Large Are the Effects from Temporary Changes in Family Environment: Evidence from a Child-Evacuation Program During World War II.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, Vol. 4, No. 3 (July 2012), pp. 28-42. Via JSTOR.
  • Suomen Akatemia (Academy of Finland). "Finnish children sent to Sweden to avoid war suffered more than those who stayed." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 April 2013.
  • The Kindertransport Association. “Kindertransport History.”
  • the National Archives. “Kindertransport.”
  • Torres, Maria de los Angeles. “Operation Pedro Pan.” Cuba. 2012 Gale Cengage Learning.
  • United States Holocaust Musuem. “Kindertransport, 1938-1940.”
  • Walsh, Monsignor Bryan O. “Cuban Refugee Children.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, Vol. 13, No. 3/4 (Jul. - Oct.,1971). Via JSTOR.
  • Weber, Greta. “Cuba's 'Peter Pans' Remember Childhood Exodus.” National Geographic. 8/14/2015.
  • Westland, Naomi. “The Gernika children who took refuge in Britain.” El Pais. 5/7/2012.
  • Zimmerman, Dwight Jon. “Operation Pied Piper: The Evacuation of English Children During World War II.” Defense Media Network. December 31, 2011.
  • Engelmann, Larry. “World Airways’ Audacious Vietnam Baby Airlift.” HistoryNet.