Six Impossible Episodes: Evacuating Children


Clockwise from top left: President Gerald R. Ford carries a Vietnamese baby who was part of Operation Babylift; policemen and billeting officers help a group of children evacuated from Bristol during Operation Pied Piper; and Finnish war children en route to Sweden in June 1941. (David Hume Kennerly/courtesy Gerald R. Ford Library. Ministry of Information Photo Division Photographer. All images public domain

All six of today’s topics are mass evacuations of children and youth because of a war or other unrest, and include Kindertransport, Operation Pedro Pan, and Operation Babylift.

Tracy's Research:

  • Allen Greg. “Children Of Cuba Remember Their Flight To America.” NPR. Weekend Edition Saturday. 11/19/2011. https://www.npr.org/2011/11/19/142534943/pedro-pan-childrens-life-altering-flight-from-cuba
  • Allen, Kevin Minh. “Operation Babylift: An Adoptee’s Perspective.” The Humanist. May-June 2009.
  • ANdersen, Maria. “Pedro Pan: A Children’s Exodus from Cuba.” Smithsonian Insider. 7/11/2017. https://insider.si.edu/2017/07/pedro-pan-childrens-exodus-cuba/
  • Attebery, Clint. “From Havana To Montana: Cuban Refugee Children, Operation Pedro Pan, and the Cold WarCatholic Church.” Montana: The Magazine of Western History, Vol. 64, No. 1 (Spring 2014). Via JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24419881
  • Bradford, Anita Casavantes. “Remembering Pedro Pan: Childhood and Collective Memory Making in Havana and Miami,1960—2000.” Cuban Studies, No. 44 (2016), pp. 283-308. Via JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/44111920
  • Curio, Claudio and Toby Axelrod. “’Invisible’ Children: The Selection and Integration Strategies of Relief Organizations.” Shofar. Vol. 23, No. 1, Special Issue: Kindertransporte 1938/39—Rescue andIntegration (Fall 2004). Via JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/42943758.
  • Ford Library Museum. “Operation Babylift.” https://www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov/museum/exhibits/babylift/
  • Hacker, Melissa and Ernest Goodman. “Kindertransport” Encyclopedia Britannica. March 21, 2018. https://www.britannica.com/event/Kindertransport
  • Martin, Rachael. “Remembering The Doomed First Flight Of Operation Babylift.” NPR. Weekend Edition. 4/26/2015. https://www.npr.org/2015/04/26/402208267/remembering-the-doomed-first-flight-of-operation-babylift
  • Oldfield, Sybil. “’It Is Usually She’: The Role of British Women in the Rescue and Care of the Kindertransport Kinder.” Shofar, Vol. 23, No. 1, Special Issue: Kindertransporte 1938/39—Rescue andIntegration (Fall 2004). Via JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/42943759
  • Operation Pedro Pan Group. “The Cuban Children’s Exodus.” http://www.pedropan.org/category/history
  • Prest, David. “Evacuees in World War Two - the True Story: Operation Pied Piper.” BBC. 2/17/2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwtwo/evacuees_01.shtml
  • Raunio, Ari. “Finnish war children of the Winter War.” Winter War Association. https://www.talvisota.fi/en/home-front/finnish-war-children-of-the-winter-war/
  • Rodrigues, Jason. “Guernica at 80: Nearly 4,000 child refugees arrive in the UK – archive, 1937.” The Guardian. 5/23/2017. https://www.theguardian.com/world/from-the-archive-blog/2017/may/23/guernica-spain-war-refugees-80-1937-southampton
  • Sahara, Ayako. “Theater of Rescue: Cultural Representations of U.S. Evacuation from Vietnam.” Journal of American & Canadian Studies; 2012, Issue 30, p55.
  • Santavirta, Torsten. “How Large Are the Effects from Temporary Changes in Family Environment: Evidence from a Child-Evacuation Program During World War II.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, Vol. 4, No. 3 (July 2012), pp. 28-42. Via JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23269729
  • Suomen Akatemia (Academy of Finland). "Finnish children sent to Sweden to avoid war suffered more than those who stayed." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 April 2013. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/04/130402091136.htm
  • The Kindertransport Association. “Kindertransport History.” http://www.kindertransport.org/history.htm
  • the National Archives. “Kindertransport.” http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/kindertransport
  • Torres, Maria de los Angeles. “Operation Pedro Pan.” Cuba. 2012 Gale Cengage Learning.
  • United States Holocaust Musuem. “Kindertransport, 1938-1940.” https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005260
  • Walsh, Monsignor Bryan O. “Cuban Refugee Children.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, Vol. 13, No. 3/4 (Jul. - Oct.,1971). Via JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/174929
  • Weber, Greta. “Cuba's 'Peter Pans' Remember Childhood Exodus.” National Geographic. 8/14/2015. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/08/150814-cuba-operation-peter-pan-embassy-reopening-Castro/?beta=true
  • Westland, Naomi. “The Gernika children who took refuge in Britain.” El Pais. 5/7/2012. https://elpais.com/elpais/2012/04/26/inenglish/1335442794_068867.html
  • Zimmerman, Dwight Jon. “Operation Pied Piper: The Evacuation of English Children During World War II.” Defense Media Network. December 31, 2011. https://www.defensemedianetwork.com/stories/operation-pied-piper-the-evacuation-of-english-children-during-world-war-ii/
  • Engelmann, Larry. “World Airways’ Audacious Vietnam Baby Airlift.” HistoryNet. http://www.historynet.com/world-airways-audacious-vietnam-baby-airlift.htm

Topics in this Podcast: Spanish history, warfare, military history, Caribbean history, Spanish Civil War, vietnam war, World War II, holocaust, 20th century, U.S. history, European history, British history, Basque history, cold war, Six Impossible Episodes