Hurricane San Ciriaco

A photo of destruction from Hurricane San Ciriaco. From Brigadier General George Davis's "Military Government of Porto Rico from October 18, 1898, to April 30, 1900." Public domain

Hurricane San Ciriaco struck Puerto Rico at a precarious point in its history. The United States had just taken possession of the island, and the 40 or so years leading up to the Spanish-American War had also been particularly tumultuous.

Tracy's Research:

  • Library of Congress. “Hurricane San Ciriaco.”
  • Brás, Marisabel. “The Changing of the Guard: Puerto Rico in 1898.”
  • Schwartz, Stuart B. “Puerto Rico’s Hurricane María Proves Once Again that Natural Disasters Are Never Natural.” History News Network. 10/2/2017.
  • Carolina Country. “Remembering the San Ciriaco Hurricane of 1899.” August 2014.
  • RENCI at East Carolina University. “San Ciriaco Hurricane, 1899.”
  • University of Rhode Island. “1899- San Ciriaco Hurricane.” Hurricanes: Science and Society.
  • Schwartz, Stuart B. “The Hurricane of San Ciriaco: Disaster, Politics, and Society in Puerto Rico, 1899-1901.” The Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 72, No. 3 (Aug., 1992). Via JSTOR.
  • Martínez-Fernández, Luis. “Puerto Rico in the Whirlwind of 1898: Conflict, Continuity, and Change.” OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 12, No. 3, The War of 1898. Via JSTOR.
  • Schwartz, Stuart B. “Hurricanes and the Shaping of Circum-Caribbean Societies.” The Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol. 83, No. 4 (Spring, 2005). Via JSTOR.
  • Bergad, Laird W. “Agrarian History of Puerto Rico, 1870-1930.” Latin American Research Review, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1978). Via JSTOR.
  • Boose, Emery R. et al. “Landscape and Regional Impacts of Hurricanes in Puerto Rico.” Ecological Monographs, Vol. 74, No. 2 (May, 2004). Via JSTOR.
  • Annual Reports for the War Department for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1899.
  • Silva, Daniella. “ Hurricane Maria death toll in Puerto Rico is thousands higher than official count, study estimates.” NBC News. 5/29/2018.
  • Kinshore, Nishant et al. “Mortality in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria.” New England Journal of Medicine. 5/29/2018.

Topics in this Podcast: floods, Caribbean history, 19th century, disasters, U.S. history