When Dred Scott v. Sandford was decided in 1857, the court decision ruled that enslaved Africans and their descendants weren’t and could never be citizens of the United States, whether they were free or not. But before that, Scott and his family had been free by a jury in 1850.
- “Dred Scott's fight for freedom.” WGBH/PBS. Africans in America. https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2932.html
- "Dred Scott v. Sandford." Oyez, 28 Jun. 2018, www.oyez.org/cases/1850-1900/60us393.
- “Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1856) .” Justia U.S. Supreme Court. https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/60/393/case.html
- Lewis, Neil A. “The Supreme Court: Ginsberg Deflects Pressure to Talk on Death Penalty.” New York Times. 7/23/1993. https://www.nytimes.com/1993/07/23/us/the-supreme-court-ginsburg-deflects-pressure-to-talk-on-death-penalty.html
- State Historical Society of Missouri. “Dred Scott (1800? – 1858).” https://shsmo.org/historicmissourians/name/s/scottd/
- State Historical Society of Missouri. “Harriet Robinson Scott” https://shsmo.org/historicmissourians/name/s/scottd/
- “The Human Factor of History: Dred Scott and Roger B. Taney.” National Museum of African American History and Culture. https://nmaahc.si.edu/blog-post/human-factor-history-dred-scott-and-roger-b-taney
- “Missouri's Dred Scott Case, 1846-1857.” Missouri Digital Heritage. https://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp
- Whittington, Keith E. “The Road Not Taken: Dred Scott, Judicial Authority, and Political Questions.” The Journal of Politics, Vol. 63, No. 2 (May, 2001). Via JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2691757
- VanderVelde, Lea. “The ‘Dred Scott’ Case as an American Family Saga.” OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 25, No. 2, Civil War at 150: Origins (April 2011). Via JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23210242
- VanderVelde, Lea and Sandhya Subramanian. “Mrs. Dred Scott.” The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 106, No. 4 (Jan., 1997) http://www.jstor.org/stable/797149
- Boman, Dennis K. “The Dred Scott Case Reconsidered: The Legal and Political Context in Missouri.” The American Journal of Legal History, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Oct., 2000). Via JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3113785
- Snyder, Charles E. “John Emerson, Owner of Dred Scot.” The Annals of Iowa. Vol. 21, No. 6. 1938. https://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6032&context=annals-of-iowa
- Washington University. “The Revised Dred Scott Case Collection.” http://digital.wustl.edu/d/dre/