Catalina de Erauso, the Lieutenant Nun

Catalina de Erauso, aka Francisco Loyola, Antonio de Erauso, and other names. Photo by ullstein bild/ullstein bild via Getty Images

Despite growing up in a convent and coming very close to taking religious vows as a nun, Catalina de Erauso wound up living a life of danger and adventure. A lot of today's episode falls into the general category of "exploits."

Here's the Rejected Princess Catalina de Erauso.

Tracy's Research:

  • Aresti, Nerea. "The Gendered Identities of the ‘Lieutenant Nun’: Rethinking the Story of a Female Warrior in Early Modern Spain." Gender & History, Vol.19 No.3 November 2007, pp. 401–418.
  • Canivell, Maria Odette. "Catalina de Erauso Basque Transvestite: Translating Gender." Human Affairs, issue 2. 2006. Via
  • de Erauso, Catalina, "The Nun Ensign." Translated by James Fitzmaurice-Kelly. Via 1908.
  • de Erauso, Catalina. "The Autobiography of doña Catalina de Erauso." Original Source: Ferrer, Joaquín María de. Madrid: Tipo Renovación, 1918. Translation and annotations by Dan Harvey Pedrick.
  • Hernandez, Isabel. "From Spain to the Americas, from the convent to the front: Catalina de Erauso's shifting identities." Eurozine. First published in L'Homme 1/2011. 9/16/2011.
  • Smith, Theresa Ann. "The Woman Question." From "The Emerging Female Citizen: Gender and Enlightenment in Spain." University of California Press.
  • Stepto, Michele and Gabriel Stepto. "Lieutenant Nun: Memoir of a Basque Transvestite in the New World." Beacon Press. 1996.

Topics in this Podcast: LGBTQ history, outlaws, South American history, Spanish history, Spanish Golden Age, Catholicism, LGBTQIA history, 17th century, 16th century