When all persons of Japanese ancestry, regardless of their citizenship, were ordered to leave the West Coast of the United States, most cooperated willingly, in part with the hope of proving their loyalty to the United States. However, over the course of the war, conditions deteriorated at the camps where they were held. Ultimately, the order and its forced removal were viewed as a gross miscarriage of justice and deeply unconstitutional. The bipartisan Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians unanimously found that an apology and reparations were warranted, leading to legislation signed by Ronald Reagan in 1988.
The play we mentioned is George Takei's "Allegiance," playing in theaters around the U.S. via Fathom Events on Feb. 19.
Our listener mail is from Sandy and is about iron lungs, following our podcast on Ed Roberts.
Episode link: Executive Order 9066 & Japanese Internments, Part 2
- " Executive Order 9066: The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation." Via George Mason University
- "History Matters: U.S. Survey Course on the Web." http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154
- Burton, J. et al. excerpts from "Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites." Via National Park Service. https://www.nps.gov/articles/historyinternment.htm
- Columbia University. "Commodore Perry and Japan (1853-1854)." Asia for Educators. http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/special/japan_1750_perry.htm
- Columbia University. "The Meiji Restoration and Modernization." Asia for Educators. http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/special/japan_1750_meiji.htm
- Eleanor Roosevelt, "My Day, December 16, 1941," The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Digital Edition (2008), accessed 2/6/2017, https://www2.gwu.edu/~erpapers/myday/displaydoc.cfm?_y=1941&_f=md056057.
- Executive Order 9066, February 19, 1942; General Records of the Unites States Government; Record Group 11; National Archives. https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=74
- Gallup. "Gallup Vault: WWII-Era Support for Japanese Internment." http://www.gallup.com/vault/195257/gallup-vault-wwii-era-support-japanese-internment.aspx
- Harvard University Open Library Collections Program. " Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)." http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/exclusion.html
- Imai, Shiho. Immigration Act of 1924. (2013, March 19). Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved 08:36, February 3, 2017 from http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Immigration%20Act%20of%201924/.
- Library of Congress. "Immigration." http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/japanese.html
- Lyon, Cherstin. Alien land laws. (2014, May 23). Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12:22, February 3, 2017 from http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Alien%20land%20laws/.
- National Museum. "Brief Historical Overview of Japanese Emigration, 1868-1998." http://www.janm.org/projects/inrp/english/overview.htm
- Niiya, Brian. Public Law 503. (2013, March 19). Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12:00, February 3, 2017 from http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Public%20Law%20503/.
- Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs. "The Immigration Act of 1924 (The Johnson-Reed Act)." U.S. Department of State. https://history.state.gov/milestones/1921-1936/immigration-act
- Reeves, Richard. "Infamy: The Shocking Story of the Japanese Internment in World War II." Henry Holt & Company. 2015
- Rubin, Julia. "Alaska's Aleuts--Forgotten Internees of WWII : Captivity: Residents of strategic islands were rounded up by U.S. government in 1942 and left to languish in old fish canneries." 3/1/1992. http://articles.latimes.com/1992-03-01/news/mn-5571_1_southeast-alaska-fish