After spending more than three years on our episode short list, Executive Order 9066 and the incarceration of Japanese Americans that followed it are finally making their podcast appearance, thanks to the upcoming 75th anniversary of the order's signing on February 19. Although it made no specific mention of ancestry or nation of origin, Executive Order 9066 paved the way for the mass removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast during World War II. In today's episode, we talk about the history of Japanese immigration to the United States and how the bombing of Pearl Harbor led to massive anti-Japanese prejudice and panic.
Our listener mail is from Emily, whose email was echoed in a conversation I had later with listener Margaret on Twitter. It's about Edmonia Lewis and queer art history.
Episode link: Executive Order 9066 and Japanese Internments, Part 1
- " Executive Order 9066: The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation." Via George Mason University
- "History Matters: U.S. Survey Course on the Web." http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154
- Burton, J. et al. excerpts from "Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites." Via National Park Service. https://www.nps.gov/articles/historyinternment.htm
- Columbia University. "Commodore Perry and Japan (1853-1854)." Asia for Educators. http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/special/japan_1750_perry.htm
- Columbia University. "The Meiji Restoration and Modernization." Asia for Educators. http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/special/japan_1750_meiji.htm
- Eleanor Roosevelt, "My Day, December 16, 1941," The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Digital Edition (2008), accessed 2/6/2017, https://www2.gwu.edu/~erpapers/myday/displaydoc.cfm?_y=1941&_f=md056057.
- Executive Order 9066, February 19, 1942; General Records of the Unites States Government; Record Group 11; National Archives. https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=74
- Gallup. "Gallup Vault: WWII-Era Support for Japanese Internment." http://www.gallup.com/vault/195257/gallup-vault-wwii-era-support-japanese-internment.aspx
- Harvard University Open Library Collections Program. " Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)." http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/exclusion.html
- Imai, Shiho. Immigration Act of 1924. (2013, March 19). Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved 08:36, February 3, 2017 from http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Immigration%20Act%20of%201924/.
- Library of Congress. "Immigration." http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/japanese.html
- Lyon, Cherstin. Alien land laws. (2014, May 23). Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12:22, February 3, 2017 from http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Alien%20land%20laws/.
- National Museum. "Brief Historical Overview of Japanese Emigration, 1868-1998." http://www.janm.org/projects/inrp/english/overview.htm
- Niiya, Brian. Public Law 503. (2013, March 19). Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12:00, February 3, 2017 from http://encyclopedia.densho.org/Public%20Law%20503/.
- Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs. "The Immigration Act of 1924 (The Johnson-Reed Act)." U.S. Department of State. https://history.state.gov/milestones/1921-1936/immigration-act
- Reeves, Richard. "Infamy: The Shocking Story of the Japanese Internment in World War II." Henry Holt & Company. 2015
- Rubin, Julia. "Alaska's Aleuts--Forgotten Internees of WWII : Captivity: Residents of strategic islands were rounded up by U.S. government in 1942 and left to languish in old fish canneries." 3/1/1992. http://articles.latimes.com/1992-03-01/news/mn-5571_1_southeast-alaska-fish