Most folks probably have a sense that the past, in much of the world, was dirty. Dirtier than today. Especially when horses were the No. 1 method of transportation of both people and goods.
But ... we don't know, really. There was way, way more manure on the streets of major cities in the late Victorian era than can easily be imaged, which is what we're talking about today.
Episode link: The Late Victorian Manure Crisis
- "The City's Sanitary Work." New York Times. Nov. 15, 1880. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9501E7DF123FEE3ABC4D52DFB767838B699FDE
- Davies, Stephen. "The Great Horse-manure Crisis of 1894." Foundation for Economic Education. Sept. 1, 2004. https://fee.org/articles/the-great-horse-manure-crisis-of-1894/
- Eno, William Phelps. "The Story of Highway Traffic Control." Eno Foundation. 1939. http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/26000/26800/26812/THE_STORY_OF_HIGHWAY_TRAFFIC_CONTROL.pdf
- History.com Staff. "This Day in History: ASPCA Is Founded." History. 2009. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/aspca-is-founded
- Johnson, Ben. "Great Horse Manure Crisis of 1894." Historic UK. http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofBritain/Great-Horse-Manure-Crisis-of-1894/
- Lee, Jennifer. "When Horses Posed a Public Health Hazard." New York Times. June 9, 2008. http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/06/09/when-horses-posed-a-public-health-hazard/?_r=0
- Merrill, Jaime, et al. "Model T Ford: The Car That Changed Our World." Independent. March 2, 2008. http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/motoring/features/model-t-ford-the-car-that-changed-our-world-790395.html
- Morris, Eric. "From Horse to Horse Power." Access. No. 30. Spring 2007. http://www.uctc.net/access/30/Access%2030%20-%2002%20-%20Horse%20Power.pdf
- Stromberg, Joseph. "Air Pollution Has Been a Problem Since the Days of Ancient Rome." Smithsonian. February 2013. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/air-pollution-has-been-a-problem-since-the-days-of-ancient-rome-3950678
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