Continuing on from Monday's podcast on non-Santa winter holiday figures, today we have a number of mostly terrifying characters meant to scare children into behaving. There's the German/Pennsylvania Dutch Belsnickel, Le Pere Fouettard of France, Iceland's Gryla (and her many sons). Then we move on to Catalonia's two somewhat scatological traditions - Caga Tio and the Caganer.
Episode link: The Krampus and Friends Holiday Special, Part 2
- "Cultural Christmas Traditions in Barcelona." Barcelona Tourist Guide. http://www.barcelona-tourist-guide.com/en/events/christmas/barcelona-christmas-traditions.html
- Laslo, Pierre. "Salt: Grain of Life." Columbia University Press. 2001.
- Lauer-Williams, Kathy. "The History of Belsnickel: Santa's Cranky Cousin." The Morning Call. Nov. 29, 2013. http://articles.mcall.com/2013-11-29/entertainment/mc-belsnickel-christmas-pennsylvania-dutch-20131129_1_candy-pennsylvania-dutch-christmas-furs
- Levy, Glen. "What is a Caganer and why is it part of a Catalan Christmas?" Time. Dec. 24, 2010. http://newsfeed.time.com/2010/12/24/what-is-a-caganer-and-why-is-it-part-of-a-catalan-christmas/
- National Museum of Iceland. "The Yule Lads." http://www.thjodminjasafn.is/english/for-visitors/christmas/the-yule-lads/
- "Père Fouettard and Hans Trapp - Santa's Little Helpers." France.com. http://www.france.com/general/pere-fouettard-and-hans-trapp-santas-little-helpers/
- Proctor, Lucy. "Bogeymen: Five Scary Visitors in the Night." BBC News. Dec. 24, 2012. http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-20799889
- Rainsford, Sara. "A traditional Nativity scene, Catalan-style." BBC News. Dec. 23, 2010. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-12059969
- Rose, Carol. "Giants, Monsters, and Dragons." W.W. Norton. 2001.
- Toland, Bill. "Meet Belsnickel, the Counter Claus." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Nov. 25, 2012. http://www.post-gazette.com/life/holidays/2012/11/25/The-Next-Page-Meet-Belsnickel-the-Counter-Claus/stories/201211250132
- "Celebrating Christmas With 13 Trolls." Iceland.Is. http://www.iceland.is/the-big-picture/news/celebrating-christmas-with-13-trolls/7916/
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